# Posts published in “Data Structure”

Problem:

Design a data structure that supports all following operations in average O(1) time.

1. insert(val): Inserts an item val to the set if not already present.
2. remove(val): Removes an item val from the set if present.
3. getRandom: Returns a random element from current set of elements. Each element must have the same probability of being returned.

Idea:

Hashtable + array

Time complexity:

O(1)

Solution:

Related Problems:

Problem:

Design and implement a data structure for Least Frequently Used (LFU) cache. It should support the following operations: get and put.

get(key) – Get the value (will always be positive) of the key if the key exists in the cache, otherwise return -1.
put(key, value) – Set or insert the value if the key is not already present. When the cache reaches its capacity, it should invalidate the least frequently used item before inserting a new item. For the purpose of this problem, when there is a tie (i.e., two or more keys that have the same frequency), the least recently used key would be evicted.

Could you do both operations in O(1) time complexity?

Example:

Idea:
Hashtable + balanced search tree
Solution 1: O(logc) c is the capacity

Solution 2: O(1)

Problem:

Median is the middle value in an ordered integer list. If the size of the list is even, there is no middle value. So the median is the mean of the two middle value.

Examples:

[2,3,4] , the median is 3

[2,3], the median is (2 + 3) / 2 = 2.5

Design a data structure that supports the following two operations:

• void addNum(int num) – Add a integer number from the data stream to the data structure.
• double findMedian() – Return the median of all elements so far.

For example:

Idea:

1. Min/Max heap
2. Balanced binary search tree

Time Complexity: