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花花酱 LeetCode 443. String Compression

Problem

题目大意:对一个string进行in-place的run length encoding。

https://leetcode.com/problems/string-compression/description/

Given an array of characters, compress it in-place.

The length after compression must always be smaller than or equal to the original array.

Every element of the array should be a character (not int) of length 1.

After you are done modifying the input array in-place, return the new length of the array.

Follow up:
Could you solve it using only O(1) extra space?

Example 1:

Input:
["a","a","b","b","c","c","c"]

Output:
Return 6, and the first 6 characters of the input array should be: ["a","2","b","2","c","3"]

Explanation:
"aa" is replaced by "a2". "bb" is replaced by "b2". "ccc" is replaced by "c3".

Example 2:

Input:
["a"]

Output:
Return 1, and the first 1 characters of the input array should be: ["a"]

Explanation:
Nothing is replaced.

Example 3:

Input:
["a","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b","b"]

Output:
Return 4, and the first 4 characters of the input array should be: ["a","b","1","2"].

Explanation:
Since the character "a" does not repeat, it is not compressed. "bbbbbbbbbbbb" is replaced by "b12".
Notice each digit has it's own entry in the array.

Note:

  1. All characters have an ASCII value in [35, 126].
  2. 1 <= len(chars) <= 1000.

Solution

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

C++

 

花花酱 LeetCode 447. Number of Boomerangs

Problem

Given n points in the plane that are all pairwise distinct, a “boomerang” is a tuple of points (i, j, k) such that the distance between i and j equals the distance between i and k (the order of the tuple matters).

Find the number of boomerangs. You may assume that n will be at most 500 and coordinates of points are all in the range [-10000, 10000] (inclusive).

Example:

Input:
[[0,0],[1,0],[2,0]]

Output:
2

Explanation:
The two boomerangs are [[1,0],[0,0],[2,0]] and [[1,0],[2,0],[0,0]]

Solution: HashTable

For each point, compute the distance to the rest of the points and count.

if there are k points that have the same distance to current point, then there are P(k,2) = k*k-1 Boomerangs.

for example, p1, p2, p3 have the same distance to p0, then there are P(3,2) = 3 * (3-1) = 6 Boomerangs

(p1, p0, p2), (p1, p0, p3)

(p2, p0, p1), (p2, p0, p3)

(p3, p0, p1), (p3, p0, p2)

C++

Solution 2: Sorting

dist = [1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 5]

sorted_dist = [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5], 1*3, 2*2, 5*1

ans = 3*(3-1) + 2 * (2 – 1) * 1 * (1 – 1) = 8

Time complexity: O(n*nlogn)

Space complexity: O(n)

 

花花酱 LeetCode 433. Minimum Genetic Mutation

Problem

题目大意:给你一个基因库,问一个基因最少需要变异多少次才能变为另外一个基因。每次变异只能修改一个字符,并且必须在基因库里。

https://leetcode.com/problems/minimum-genetic-mutation/description/

A gene string can be represented by an 8-character long string, with choices from "A""C""G""T".

Suppose we need to investigate about a mutation (mutation from “start” to “end”), where ONE mutation is defined as ONE single character changed in the gene string.

For example, "AACCGGTT" -> "AACCGGTA" is 1 mutation.

Also, there is a given gene “bank”, which records all the valid gene mutations. A gene must be in the bank to make it a valid gene string.

Now, given 3 things – start, end, bank, your task is to determine what is the minimum number of mutations needed to mutate from “start” to “end”. If there is no such a mutation, return -1.

Note:

  1. Starting point is assumed to be valid, so it might not be included in the bank.
  2. If multiple mutations are needed, all mutations during in the sequence must be valid.
  3. You may assume start and end string is not the same.

Example 1:

start: "AACCGGTT"
end:   "AACCGGTA"
bank: ["AACCGGTA"]

return: 1

Example 2:

start: "AACCGGTT"
end:   "AAACGGTA"
bank: ["AACCGGTA", "AACCGCTA", "AAACGGTA"]

return: 2

Example 3:

start: "AAAAACCC"
end:   "AACCCCCC"
bank: ["AAAACCCC", "AAACCCCC", "AACCCCCC"]

return: 3

Solution: BFS Shortest Path

Time complexity: O(n^2)

Space complexity: O(n)

 

花花酱 LeetCode 437. Path Sum III

Problem

题目大意:给你一棵二叉树,返回单向的路径和等于sum的路径数量。

https://leetcode.com/problems/path-sum-iii/description/

You are given a binary tree in which each node contains an integer value.

Find the number of paths that sum to a given value.

The path does not need to start or end at the root or a leaf, but it must go downwards (traveling only from parent nodes to child nodes).

The tree has no more than 1,000 nodes and the values are in the range -1,000,000 to 1,000,000.

Example:

root = [10,5,-3,3,2,null,11,3,-2,null,1], sum = 8

      10
     /  \
    5   -3
   / \    \
  3   2   11
 / \   \
3  -2   1

Return 3. The paths that sum to 8 are:

1.  5 -> 3
2.  5 -> 2 -> 1
3. -3 -> 11

Solution 1: Recursion

Time complexity: O(n^2)

Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: Running Prefix Sum

Same idea to 花花酱 LeetCode 560. Subarray Sum Equals K

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(h)

C++

Related Problem

 

花花酱 LeetCode 434. Number of Segments in a String

Problem

题目大意:返回字符串中的非空白字符连续的字串数量。

https://leetcode.com/problems/number-of-segments-in-a-string/description/

Count the number of segments in a string, where a segment is defined to be a contiguous sequence of non-space characters.

Please note that the string does not contain any non-printable characters.

Example:

Input: "Hello, my name is John"
Output: 5

Solution

Be aware of special cases: like ”      “.

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

C++

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