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花花酱 LeetCode 127. Word Ladder

https://leetcode.com/problems/word-ladder/description/

Problem:

Given two words (beginWord and endWord), and a dictionary’s word list, find the length of shortest transformation sequence from beginWord to endWord, such that:

  1. Only one letter can be changed at a time.
  2. Each transformed word must exist in the word list. Note that beginWord is not a transformed word.

For example,

Given:
beginWord = "hit"
endWord = "cog"
wordList = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log","cog"]

As one shortest transformation is "hit" -> "hot" -> "dot" -> "dog" -> "cog",
return its length 5.

Note:

  • Return 0 if there is no such transformation sequence.
  • All words have the same length.
  • All words contain only lowercase alphabetic characters.
  • You may assume no duplicates in the word list.
  • You may assume beginWord and endWord are non-empty and are not the same.

 

Idea:



BFS

Time Complexity: O(n*26^l) -> O(n*26^l/2), l = len(word), n=|wordList|

Space Complexity: O(n)



Solution 1: BFS

C++

Java

Solution 2: Bidirectional BFS

C++

Java

Python

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 681. Next Closest Time

Problem:

https://leetcode.com/problems/next-closest-time/description/
no limit on how many times a digit can be reused.

You may assume the given input string is always valid. For example, “01:34”, “12:09” are all valid. “1:34”, “12:9” are all invalid.

Example 1:

Input: "19:34"
Output: "19:39"
Explanation: The next closest time choosing from digits 1, 9, 3, 4, is 19:39, 
which occurs 5 minutes later.  
It is not 19:33, because this occurs 23 hours and 59 minutes later.

Example 2:

Input: "23:59"
Output: "22:22"
Explanation: The next closest time choosing from digits 2, 3, 5, 9, is 22:22. 
It may be assumed that the returned time is next day's time since it is smaller 
than the input time numerically.

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Solution1: Brute force

C++

Java

Python

Solution 2: DFS

C++

Solution 3: Brute force + Time library

Python3

Related Problems:

花花酱 LeetCode 682. Baseball Game

Problem:

You’re now a baseball game point recorder.

Given a list of strings, each string can be one of the 4 following types:

  1. Integer (one round’s score): Directly represents the number of points you get in this round.
  2. "+" (one round’s score): Represents that the points you get in this round are the sum of the last two validround’s points.
  3. "D" (one round’s score): Represents that the points you get in this round are the doubled data of the last valid round’s points.
  4. "C" (an operation, which isn’t a round’s score): Represents the last valid round’s points you get were invalid and should be removed.

Each round’s operation is permanent and could have an impact on the round before and the round after.

You need to return the sum of the points you could get in all the rounds.

Example 1:

Example 2:

Note:

 

  • The size of the input list will be between 1 and 1000.
  • Every integer represented in the list will be between -30000 and 30000.

 

Idea:

Simulation



Solution:

C++:

 

Java:

 

Python

 

 

花花酱 LeetCode 218. The Skyline Problem

Problem:

A city’s skyline is the outer contour of the silhouette formed by all the buildings in that city when viewed from a distance. Now suppose you are given the locations and height of all the buildings as shown on a cityscape photo (Figure A), write a program to output the skyline formed by these buildings collectively (Figure B).

Buildings Skyline Contour

The geometric information of each building is represented by a triplet of integers [Li, Ri, Hi], where Li and Ri are the x coordinates of the left and right edge of the ith building, respectively, and Hi is its height. It is guaranteed that 0 ≤ Li, Ri ≤ INT_MAX0 < Hi ≤ INT_MAX, and Ri - Li > 0. You may assume all buildings are perfect rectangles grounded on an absolutely flat surface at height 0.

For instance, the dimensions of all buildings in Figure A are recorded as: [ [2 9 10], [3 7 15], [5 12 12], [15 20 10], [19 24 8] ] .

The output is a list of “key points” (red dots in Figure B) in the format of [ [x1,y1], [x2, y2], [x3, y3], ... ] that uniquely defines a skyline. A key point is the left endpoint of a horizontal line segment. Note that the last key point, where the rightmost building ends, is merely used to mark the termination of the skyline, and always has zero height. Also, the ground in between any two adjacent buildings should be considered part of the skyline contour.

For instance, the skyline in Figure B should be represented as:[ [2 10], [3 15], [7 12], [12 0], [15 10], [20 8], [24, 0] ].

Notes:

  • The number of buildings in any input list is guaranteed to be in the range [0, 10000].
  • The input list is already sorted in ascending order by the left x position Li.
  • The output list must be sorted by the x position.
  • There must be no consecutive horizontal lines of equal height in the output skyline. For instance, [...[2 3], [4 5], [7 5], [11 5], [12 7]...] is not acceptable; the three lines of height 5 should be merged into one in the final output as such: [...[2 3], [4 5], [12 7], ...]

 

Idea:

Sweep line



Time Complexity:

O(nlogn)

Space Complexity:

O(n)

Solution1: Heap 

C++

Java

Solution 2: Multiset

C++

 

花花酱 LeetCode 547. Friend Circles

Problem:

There are N students in a class. Some of them are friends, while some are not. Their friendship is transitive in nature. For example, if A is a direct friend of B, and B is a direct friend of C, then A is an indirect friend of C. And we defined a friend circle is a group of students who are direct or indirect friends.

Given a N*N matrix M representing the friend relationship between students in the class. If M[i][j] = 1, then the ithand jth students are direct friends with each other, otherwise not. And you have to output the total number of friend circles among all the students.

Example 1:

Example 2:

  1. N is in range [1,200].
  2. M[i][i] = 1 for all students.
  3. If M[i][j] = 1, then M[j][i] = 1.

Idea:

Find all connected components using DFS



Solution: DFS

C++

Java

Python

Solution 2: Union Find

C++

 

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