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Posts tagged as “topological sort”

花花酱 LeetCode 2050. Parallel Courses III

You are given an integer n, which indicates that there are n courses labeled from 1 to n. You are also given a 2D integer array relations where relations[j] = [prevCoursej, nextCoursej] denotes that course prevCoursej has to be completed before course nextCoursej (prerequisite relationship). Furthermore, you are given a 0-indexed integer array time where time[i] denotes how many months it takes to complete the (i+1)th course.

You must find the minimum number of months needed to complete all the courses following these rules:

  • You may start taking a course at any time if the prerequisites are met.
  • Any number of courses can be taken at the same time.

Return the minimum number of months needed to complete all the courses.

Note: The test cases are generated such that it is possible to complete every course (i.e., the graph is a directed acyclic graph).

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, relations = [[1,3],[2,3]], time = [3,2,5]
Output: 8
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph and the time required to complete each course. 
We start course 1 and course 2 simultaneously at month 0.
Course 1 takes 3 months and course 2 takes 2 months to complete respectively.
Thus, the earliest time we can start course 3 is at month 3, and the total time required is 3 + 5 = 8 months.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, relations = [[1,5],[2,5],[3,5],[3,4],[4,5]], time = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 12
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph and the time required to complete each course.
You can start courses 1, 2, and 3 at month 0.
You can complete them after 1, 2, and 3 months respectively.
Course 4 can be taken only after course 3 is completed, i.e., after 3 months. It is completed after 3 + 4 = 7 months.
Course 5 can be taken only after courses 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been completed, i.e., after max(1,2,3,7) = 7 months.
Thus, the minimum time needed to complete all the courses is 7 + 5 = 12 months.


  • 1 <= n <= 5 * 104
  • 0 <= relations.length <= min(n * (n - 1) / 2, 5 * 104)
  • relations[j].length == 2
  • 1 <= prevCoursej, nextCoursej <= n
  • prevCoursej != nextCoursej
  • All the pairs [prevCoursej, nextCoursej] are unique.
  • time.length == n
  • 1 <= time[i] <= 104
  • The given graph is a directed acyclic graph.

Solution: Topological Sorting

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V+E)



花花酱 LeetCode 1857. Largest Color Value in a Directed Graph

There is a directed graph of n colored nodes and m edges. The nodes are numbered from 0 to n - 1.

You are given a string colors where colors[i] is a lowercase English letter representing the color of the ith node in this graph (0-indexed). You are also given a 2D array edges where edges[j] = [aj, bj] indicates that there is a directed edge from node aj to node bj.

A valid path in the graph is a sequence of nodes x1 -> x2 -> x3 -> ... -> xk such that there is a directed edge from xi to xi+1 for every 1 <= i < k. The color value of the path is the number of nodes that are colored the most frequently occurring color along that path.

Return the largest color value of any valid path in the given graph, or -1 if the graph contains a cycle.

Example 1:

Input: colors = "abaca", edges = [[0,1],[0,2],[2,3],[3,4]]
Output: 3
Explanation: The path 0 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 contains 3 nodes that are colored "a" (red in the above image).

Example 2:

Input: colors = "a", edges = [[0,0]]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is a cycle from 0 to 0.


  • n == colors.length
  • m == edges.length
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 0 <= m <= 105
  • colors consists of lowercase English letters.
  • 0 <= aj, bj < n

Solution: Topological Sorting

freq[n][c] := max freq of color c after visiting node n.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n*26)


花花酱 LeetCode 1591. Strange Printer II

There is a strange printer with the following two special requirements:

  • On each turn, the printer will print a solid rectangular pattern of a single color on the grid. This will cover up the existing colors in the rectangle.
  • Once the printer has used a color for the above operation, the same color cannot be used again.

You are given a m x n matrix targetGrid, where targetGrid[row][col] is the color in the position (row, col) of the grid.

Return true if it is possible to print the matrix targetGrid, otherwise, return false.

Example 1:

Input: targetGrid = [[1,1,1,1],[1,2,2,1],[1,2,2,1],[1,1,1,1]]
Output: true

Example 2:

Input: targetGrid = [[1,1,1,1],[1,1,3,3],[1,1,3,4],[5,5,1,4]]
Output: true

Example 3:

Input: targetGrid = [[1,2,1],[2,1,2],[1,2,1]]
Output: false
Explanation: It is impossible to form targetGrid because it is not allowed to print the same color in different turns.

Example 4:

Input: targetGrid = [[1,1,1],[3,1,3]]
Output: false


  • m == targetGrid.length
  • n == targetGrid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 60
  • 1 <= targetGrid[row][col] <= 60

Solution: Dependency graph

For each color C find the maximum rectangle to cover it. Any other color C’ in this rectangle is a dependency of C, e.g. C’ must be print first in order to print C.

Then this problem reduced to check if there is any cycle in the dependency graph.

1 2 1
2 1 2
1 2 1
The maximum rectangle for 1 and 2 are both [0, 0] ~ [2, 2]. 1 depends on 2, and 2 depends on 1. This is a circular reference and no way to print.

Time complexity: O(C*M*N)
Space complexity: O(C*C)


花花酱 LeetCode 802. Find Eventual Safe States



In a directed graph, we start at some node and every turn, walk along a directed edge of the graph.  If we reach a node that is terminal (that is, it has no outgoing directed edges), we stop.

Now, say our starting node is eventually safe if and only if we must eventually walk to a terminal node.  More specifically, there exists a natural number K so that for any choice of where to walk, we must have stopped at a terminal node in less than K steps.

Which nodes are eventually safe?  Return them as an array in sorted order.

The directed graph has N nodes with labels 0, 1, ..., N-1, where N is the length of graph.  The graph is given in the following form: graph[i] is a list of labels j such that (i, j) is a directed edge of the graph.

Input: graph = [[1,2],[2,3],[5],[0],[5],[],[]]
Output: [2,4,5,6]
Here is a diagram of the above graph.

Illustration of graph


  • graph will have length at most 10000.
  • The number of edges in the graph will not exceed 32000.
  • Each graph[i] will be a sorted list of different integers, chosen within the range [0, graph.length - 1].

Idea: Finding Cycles

Solution 1: DFS

 A node is safe if and only if: itself and all of its neighbors do not have any cycles.

Time complexity: O(V + E)

Space complexity: O(V + E)

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 210. Course Schedule II


There are a total of n courses you have to take, labeled from 0 to n - 1.

Some courses may have prerequisites, for example to take course 0 you have to first take course 1, which is expressed as a pair: [0,1]

Given the total number of courses and a list of prerequisite pairs, return the ordering of courses you should take to finish all courses.

There may be multiple correct orders, you just need to return one of them. If it is impossible to finish all courses, return an empty array.

For example:

There are a total of 2 courses to take. To take course 1 you should have finished course 0. So the correct course order is [0,1]

There are a total of 4 courses to take. To take course 3 you should have finished both courses 1 and 2. Both courses 1 and 2 should be taken after you finished course 0. So one correct course order is [0,1,2,3]. Another correct ordering is[0,2,1,3].


  1. The input prerequisites is a graph represented by a list of edges, not adjacency matrices. Read more about how a graph is represented.
  2. You may assume that there are no duplicate edges in the input prerequisites.




Topological sorting


Solution 1: Topological Sorting

Time complexity: O(V+E)

Space complexity: O(V+E)



Related Problems: